In-Group BiasOpen Access

In-Group Bias

We tend to favour our group over others

Our evolutionary need to belong creates an irrational preference for our own group, causing us to behave uncooperatively and harming broader cohesion.

Tajfel, H., Billig, M. G., Bundy, R. P., & Flament, C. (1971). Social categorisation and intergroup behaviour. European journal of social psychology, 1(2), 149-178.

The study

Setup

Setup

48 teenagers were divided into 2 groups based on expressing a preference for a painting. They were then told to anonymously award money to other participants involved in the study.

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Results

Results

The results demonstrated that when given a choice between maximising profit for all groups and maximising profit for their own group, they chose the latter.

Study graph
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Tajfel, H., Billig, M. G., Bundy, R. P., & Flament, C. (1971). Social categorisation and intergroup behaviour. European journal of social psychology, 1(2), 149-178.

Key Takeaways

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1

In-Group favouritism can take many forms.

For instance, designers might feel they are the out-group in a meeting dominated by engineers, creating a sense that they're either not as welcomed or have opinions that aren't as valued. Who might be feeling excluded in your projects and meetings?

Takeaway image
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2

Turn “Us vs Them” into “We”.

Broaden the perception of group boundaries by cooperating with the out-group in shared activities (Gaertner et al., 1990). Which situations can you create that promote collaboration?

Takeaway image
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3

Actively use the benefits of your outgroup.

We tend to evaluate the work of our own group as better and more creative than it really is. However, by enlisting the aid of an out-group, you may have an accurate assessment of the actual creative value (Adarves‐Yorno, 2008).

Takeaway image
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4

Be careful with unconscious bias.

Groups can be formed by meaningless reasons but also by our own pre-conceived notions or bias. What might be some of the reasons you or others use to place someone in an out-group? How might you raise this in a way to bring disconnected groups together?

Takeaway image

Be careful with unconscious bias.

Groups can be formed by meaningless reasons but also by our own pre-conceived notions or bias. What might be some of the reasons you or others use to place someone in an out-group? How might you raise this in a way to bring disconnected groups together?

Takeaway image
Pairings

Pairings

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In-Group Bias

In-Group Bias

We tend to favour our group over others

Our evolutionary need to belong creates an irrational preference for our own group, causing us to behave uncooperatively and harming broader cohesion.

The study

Setup

48 teenagers were divided into 2 groups based on expressing a preference for a painting. They were then told to anonymously award money to other participants involved in the study.

Results

The results demonstrated that when given a choice between maximising profit for all groups and maximising profit for their own group, they chose the latter.

study graph
np_read_2490885_000000

In detail

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Open access, foundational Nuggets

Scarcity

Scarcity

We value things more when they’re in limited supply

Social Proof

Social Proof

We copy the behaviors of others, especially in unfamiliar situations

Prospect Theory

Prospect Theory

A loss hurts more than an equal gain feels good

Reciprocity

Reciprocity

We’re hardwired to return kindness received

Framing

Framing

We make very different decisions based on how a fact is presented

Loss Aversion

Loss Aversion

We feel more negative when losing something than positive when we gain it

Default Effect

Default Effect

We tend to accept the option pre-chosen for us

Anchoring

Anchoring

What we see first affects our judgement of everything thereafter

Fast & Slow Thinking

Fast & Slow Thinking

We make knee-jerk spontaneous decisions that can cause regretful damage

Dynamic Norms

Dynamic Norms

We’re more likely to change if we can see a new behavior developing

Salience

Salience

Our choices are determined by the information we're shown

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Certainty Effect
We crave clarity over chance and make costly sacrifices to get it

Like it or not, we're all hard-wired to seek out information that helps us reduce uncertainty over the future. We'll explore:

• How Certainty works as a behavioural concept

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• How you can use certainty in your work to improve experiences!

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Certainty Effect
We crave clarity over chance and make costly sacrifices to get it
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