FramingOpen Access

Framing

We make very different decisions based on how a fact is presented

The same core information can be dramatically reframed through words, numbers and imagery to greatly influence decision-making.

Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1981). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211, 453–458.

The study

Setup

96 people were told they’d be given some ground beef to taste, with half told it’d be  “25% fat” (negative frame) and half told it’d be “75% lean” (positive frame). They were then asked to rate the quality of the beef out of 7.

Results

Those presented with a positive frame rated the beef as higher quality than those presented with a negative one.

Study graph

Key Takeaways

Create a frame using context, words or imagery to help others  to see things according to your needs.  Wildly different perceptions are made possible by reframing the same evidence.

Takeaway image

Reframe statistics as factually-accurate positives against competitors.  Facts are dramatically reinterpreted when set amongst different data. 

Takeaway image

Create a fear of missing out. We’re more likely to take up a special offer when the marketing message is framed as a potential loss than a gain (Gamliel and Herstein, 2012). 

Takeaway image
Takeaway image
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Framing

Framing

We make very different decisions based on how a fact is presented

The same core information can be dramatically reframed through words, numbers and imagery to greatly influence decision-making.

The study

Setup

96 people were told they’d be given some ground beef to taste, with half told it’d be  “25% fat” (negative frame) and half told it’d be “75% lean” (positive frame). They were then asked to rate the quality of the beef out of 7.

Results

Those presented with a positive frame rated the beef as higher quality than those presented with a negative one.

study graph
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Limited Choice
We’re more likely to decide when the options are sensibly restricted

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• The theory behind why choice is so important, yet also the pitfalls from too much of it
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